Window Manufacturer, Smoke vent, Ventilation

Risk assessment + protective measures

Window manufacturers bear the liability risk as responsible installers of power-operated windows

Imagine your window drive opening and closing without taking possible dangers into consideration. Even if a person has their finger inside of the closing edge, the drive does not slow down or stop the closing process. At forces up to 300 N, such a scenario could end up being quite painful. To prevent this from happening, a risk assessment for these systems must be carried out as per the DIN EN 14351-1 product standard for windows and external doors based on the 2006/42/EC Machinery Directive. This is the obligation of the installer, the one who combines the drive or drive system with the window (e.g. the metalworker, window manufacturer or SHEV installer). The installer is liable in the event that the corresponding and health protection requirements are not met.

In this process, a risk assessment is performed in the planning stage, well before installation starts. This means that the system consisting of the drive and window needs to have been designed and produced under consideration of the results of the risk assessment.

The risk assessment includes:

  • Evaluating possible dangers
  • Carrying out suitable protective measures
  • Cautioning against risks that remain


Possible danger points at power-operated windows

1. Risk of crushing and injury by shearing on main closing edge 

2. Drive (incomplete machine)

3.Risk of impact injury

4.Risk of crushing and injury by shearing on side closing edges

5. Danger points between side closing edge and reveal

Friedrich Reckfort - Managing Director of D+H Deutschland GmbH

„Power-operated windows, especially with automatic control, can create a potential danger, which the planners must counteract with appropriate specifications“.

What protective measures are there?

There are no universal protective measures for the use of motorised window drives – a property-based risk analysis is always necessary. Different protective measures are required to minimise risk, depending on what risk is present. Through the specified risk assessment of the installation situation. Usage and control are determined using the specified protection classes of the required protective measures. In this process, measures of higher protection classes automatically cover those of lower protection classes. For example, possible protective measures include warning notices, rounded, padded edges or contact sensors.

As a certified partner, D+H assists you in the risk assessment and provides support in the planning. The standard version of D+H window drives covers many of the protective measures. If additional options are needed beyond this, they can be conveniently ordered. Here are a few examples:

  • Warnings

    Every D+H drive has a warning label that must be attached to the power-operated window.

  • Clamping forces 80 N to 150 N

    The closing force of most D+H drive series (apart from ZA, DXD and CDP drives) is limited at the factory to 150 N over the last 100 mm of travel. The running speed at this distance is also reduced to 5 mm/s.

  • Audible warning signals (Option -AS2)

    This option equips the drive with a 2.3 kHz signal emitter. An audible signal is emitted for the duration of the stroke while a window is closing. Cycle timing: 0.5 s pause and 0.5 s Signal.

  • Protection by safety devices (option -SKS)

    Touch-activated or contactless protective equipment can also be attached directly to the drives or drive groups on all D+H drives that use BSY+ technology – such as the PD-C180i/16 DH presence detector.

Your checklist

What do you need to do to meet the requirements of the Machinery Directive?

  • Carry out risk assessment
  • Determine protection class
  • Put protective measures in place
  • Certifi cate of conformity
  • Apply CE identifi cation

You will find further information in our leaflet.